Any system of Government has three special aspects, the constitutional, the political and the economic. Now let us assess the so-called ten years of progress of our Government from these angles. Look at the Constitution. It is not democratic, nor parliamentary nor presidential. It is not based on any constitutional principles. Right or wrong, there is a system of parliamentary government. It may not succeed but it is based on certain principles. Then there is the presidential system. But our Constitution is neither parliamentary nor presidential.
A constitution can either be unitary or federal. Our Constitution again is neither unitary nor federal. A constitution also defines the functions of the legislature and judiciary. Our Constitution only defines the functions of the executive. The legislature has no powers although they are called the representatives of the people. In spite of this they want us to believe that this is a democratic constitution. The Basic Democracies' system is not a democratic system.
We want democracy, not these indirect elections through 1,20,000 Basic Democrats. The Government thinks that they have bestowed a great favour upon us by increasing the number of Basic Democrats from 80,000 to 1,20,000. We are indeed very grateful to them. They have done a great favour to us, the poor, ignorant people. We are all sick people. The whole nation is sick. They are our doctors and they are curing us gradually. Our fever is going down. We have slightly recovered in the last ten years. Our ignorance is declining. That is why they have increased the number of our representatives by 40,000. They should be ashamed of calling it a democratic system. It is not democratic by any standard. If it was a democratic system, the leading democracies of the world, who have struggled so hard for democracy, would have adopted it. These countries faced many revolutions. The most important and the first of such revolutions was in France, the famous French Revolution. Why does France not have the Basic Democracies system?
Last May there were disturbances by the students and the workers in France. When I went there in July, I asked them the cause of the unrest. I told them France had made wonderful progress during the last ten years. France had been subservient to Britain and now Britain wanted to join the European Common Market which was under French influence. France had lost all prestige and now it was referred to as a great country. Then why were they restive? What was wrong with them? They admitted that there was democracy in their country but they said de Gaulle had ruled over them for ten long years and this was "intellectual dictatorship.' They did not want to tolerate a man who had ruled for ten years. This is the measure of their democracy. So France does not have this system of Basic Democracies. England does not have this system. Even America, which is the master of our rulers, does not have this system. Why do they want to make Pakistan such a distinctive country? The worst bribery in the world is in Pakistan. The worst system of government is in Pakistan. The worst economic exploitation is in Pakistan. The worst tyranny is in Pakistan. The worst bureaucracy is in Pakistan and the least respect for law is also in Pakistan. This is the progress made during the last ten years. They can be proud of their system; the people are sick of it.
Now what is the purpose of the Basic Democracies system, which you can never call a democratic system? It is to elect the President of Pakistan and members of the Assemblies. They tell us that the Basic Democrats are elected through adult franchise. What difference does that make? If the representative, of the people go to the Assemblies, they are responsible to them. They enjoy some powers. They are no decoration pieces or flower bouquets. You tell us that there are hundreds of members of the National Assembly. But what are their powers? In the first instance, these members are not elected through a democratic method. Then they don't have any powers over the finances of the country. That is the real authority of a sovereign assembly, but our members cannot make any changes in the budget provisions. So this Constitution has no principles, presidential or parliamentary, federal or unitary and the legislatures are deprived of all powers. I don't want to say anything about the judiciary. I have a lot of respect for the judiciary. I am an advocate and hold the judiciary in high esteem. It is the judiciary which has saved this country. All other doors are closed. This is the only door which is open. Now the rulers are trying to close this door too.
They say that this Constitution has been tried for ten years and this Constitution will continue for the welfare of the people. I want to say clearly that this Constitution will stay only as long as President Ayub Khan stays. After him this unjust and unnatural Constitution will have to go. That is the worth of this Constitution. They say that this Constitution has brought stability to the country. Yes, but it is the stability of the graveyard. What do they mean by stability? Stability does not mean the suppression of the people. It does not mean hating the common man and confiscating his rights. One of the great Greek philosophers said about dictators that "they cause devastation and call it peace." That exactly is the stability that exists here: stability and peace born out of devastation and destruction.
May we ask what is the need for this stability? What is its scope? What is its utility? Stability is required by a Government to present its policies before the people and to act upon them. Stability affords a chance to the people to judge for themselves the different aspects of a policy and its results.
But what are the policies of this Government? Which one of their policies has been consistent? When this Government came to power, in the very first speech delivered by Ayub Khan on 8th October. 1958, the politicians were dubbed as traitors and tyrants. We were told that they would be forcibly retired from politics forever. Now after eight years, the same politicians are being made Ministers.
It was also said that no political parties will be allowed in the country because political parties had ruined the country. The Basic Democracies system was created with that in view. Five or six years later, President Ayub himself assumed the office of the President of Muslim League and said that without the progress of this party, the country could not progress. Is this what is called stability and is this the consistency in his policies?
It was said land reforms were necessary because the real power should be in the hands of the cultivator. The landlords held all political power. They were called tyrants and it was declared that the 600 families of zamindars were responsible for destroying Pakistan by sucking the blood of the poor people. So land reforms were heralded with a lot of fanfare and trumpeting. It was declared that the death knell of feudalism had been sounded. Then what happened was that the worst tyrant among the feudal lords, the Nawab of Kalabagh, was appointed Governor of West Pakistan. The wealth of the 600 families was concentrated in the hands of 22 families. This is the record of those who ask for stability.
Leaving aside internal problems, let us take up foreign policy. When this Government came into power it was said that America was the only friend of Pakistan. It was said that America was a natural friend of Pakistan and that this great power was giving us economic and military aid and under no circumstances would we spoil our relations with her. Many of you may have forgotten but some of my friends here will recall that during those days if someone happened to talk to the Russian or Chinese ambassadors, he became a suspect and the CID shadowed him. No one who accepted an invitation from these embassies was spared. The distribution of their literature was banned. I am not disclosing any defence secrets. The rulers may accuse me of disclosing official secrets but I am not doing that. I am only uncovering their faces, taking off their masks. It has become a fashion for our rulers to cover their misdeeds under the cover of official secrets.
They try to frighten me when I expose their nefarious activities. They can try to frighten me because they are powerful dictators of the country. But do they think I am afraid of them? I challenge them to come and compete with me in the political field. Let them bring their police. Let them get the help of their officers and their wealth. We are not armed with weapons. We don't have their police, their press and their so-called weapons. We don't have access to radio and television. We don't have the power of the administration behind us. In spite of this we are ready to face them because our hands are clean. Our intentions are clear. They may keep their wealth and officers with them, even their guns.
If they have the 22 families on their side, we have the support of the workers. If they have officers, we have the students and above all our cause is just while they stand for an unjust cause. We shall fight them and we are not afraid of them. We are afraid only of God Almighty. That is what our religion teaches us. We have come into the open to bring to an end this tyranny and suppression and we shall never retreat. We shall advance and never retrace our steps.
I have already discussed the Constitution with you. In so far as their political policy is concerned there is only one principle of their policy and that is "Power and power at all costs." That is the basic political policy of the Government; power through the Basic Democracies system in which the officers will play an important role. That is how they want to perpetuate their rule.
Let me now come to the much talked-about economic policy, which according to them has put the country on the path of progress, progress hitherto unknown in Pakistan. The fact remains that economic development in 1930 was ahead of development in 1920; in 1940 it was ahead of 1930. That is how it goes. Some mills are established, some roads are constructed, some buildings come up as time passes. There is nothing remarkable about it. The point is how did all this benefit the common man? What is the plight of the workers today? How much has poverty spread in the country? It was no divine law that poverty must prevail in the country. They want us to believe that the country has progressed on the basis of certificates obtained from abroad. Their Finance Minister goes abroad to the World Bank and tells us that Mr. McNamara, the World Bank President, has commended the progress made by Pakistan. Our criteria is not your certificates from the World Bank. We want to assess the progress on the basis of the lot of the common man. Have you ever felt the pain and misery in which the common man lives? Go to the villages and see the conditions of life of a worker and compare it with those in Europe and America. What have you done to improve the living conditions of the poor workers? Sometimes he does not get wheat, he does not get sugar and at certain times he is even deprived of water. Then you tell us the country has progressed while the living conditions of the workers and the peasants who comprise 80 per cent of the population are deteriorating every day.
Law and order has broken down. What should the poor people do? What about the protection of their lives and poverty? How can they educate their children? You have not opened any colleges for them. There has been no improvement in the universities. There has been no progress in the field of education. Education has been bound with chains through the University Ordinance. You can even withdraw a degree under this Ordinance. This was not done even by Hitler. Then we are accused of misleading the students. There is no need for us to mislead them. You are yourselves creating doubts in their minds. You are suppressing them. You don't allow them to pursue their studies peacefully. You doubt their integrity. You suppress them and your explanation is that India is a threat, that India is four or five times bigger than Pakistan.
We have seen the map of India. Don't keep repeating this to us because we are not that ignorant. We have seen the size of India. Why merely repeat that India is a large country, that she has many factories, that many more factories are coming up there? I have said all this as Foreign Minister. Why don't you introduce military training in the universities? Military training should be imparted in the universities and the masses should be prepared for a people's war. If you think it is difficult to face India because of her size and resources, then look at Vietnam, a small country. They are facing a power like America because it is not only the army which is fighting there, it is the entire nation. If the people fight, there may be destruction and losses, but there can never be a defeat. We are proud of our army. It is unparalleled in the world. It is a gallant army and all of us are proud of its performance in the last war. Even then if you have to be really prepared to fight against an enemy which is much larger in size and resources, and has more weapons and army, then the only way is to prepare the people. Introduce military training in the universities and be prepared for a people's war. But you will never do it because you are afraid of the people. You hate them and have no faith in them. If you had any regard for the people you would never have allowed the 22 families to usurp the wealth of the country. The people are denied the money earned by them.
When I say that we shall gradually nationalise the mills and factories they say that this is socialism which is against Islam. Then the rulers say hat I am a rich man and a landlord. How can I be a socialist? My brothers: The answer is simple. What is the message of Islam? What is Islam based upon? It is based upon equality. Well, if Islam stands for equality how can the present system be Islamic? It can certainly never be called Islamic. You call this country the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Governor Musa of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan during his speech in Hyderabad said with contempt that there were rickshawallas and tongawallas and workers at Bhutto's meeting. Brothers: Is this equality? Why hate the poor people? Why talk about them with such contempt as if they were beasts? That is why these rulers cannot come out. That is why they cover their noses when they come close to the poor.
Socialism is not against Islam. There is no conflict between the two whatsoever. Had that been the case there would have been no socialism in. Egypt. Are all Muslims of Egypt infidels? Why is there socialism in Algeria? Why was there socialism in Indonesia during the time of President Soekarno? Why is Southern Yemen establishing a socialist system? If there was any conflict between socialism and Islam we would never have been socialists. We are Muslims first and anything else later. Governor Musa who is opposed to socialism believes in the personality cult. They look at everything from that angle. Everyone cannot think alike but no one should look at things from a personal angle. Those who want the nation to progress must be prepared for sacrifice. Mine is not the first example of being a big landlord believing in socialism. There are many capitalists who believe in the principles of socialism. They go beyond their persona] interest and follow the right path because they believe in it. So mine is not the first example. If the nation progresses and prospers, so do I. But if I am living in luxury and comfort but my nation is poor I won't regard it as progress at all. That is what has happened in Russia and China. The best example was set by the early Muslims. There were many among the Quraish who were big businessmen but they joined the ranks of the poor in following the Holy Prophet and surrendered their wealth for his cause because they believed in the truth of the cause. They believed, so they followed the right path in the service of Islam and sacrificed their persona] interest.
When I say that this system is wrong, its Constitution is wrong, its political and economic policies are wrong. I am dubbed as a traitor. I was not a traitor when I was with them. Praises were then showered on me. Now I am a traitor. They are patriots and we are traitors because we demand democracy. We want real progress and justice. We want the coming generations to be educated. We want to eradicate poverty and bribery. We want to keep the bureaucrats within their limits. We are traitors because of all this and they are patriots because they proposed joint defence with India, because they signed the Indus Basin Treaty and called it the salvation of the poor but when I referred to the international riparian law on the subject, they were cross with me. They are patriots because they allowed an American base to be established at Berubari and because they have not so far acquired Berubari. This is their patriotism.
As rulers you think you can misguide the public. You are sadly mistaken. The people in this country are wide awake. They are brave people, conscious of their rights. You can't misguide them. You may go on issuing your false statements. The nation knows everything and understands it. You are preparing for the elections now and the opposition has been put through many trials. We know that as time passes, troubles will increase for the opposition. There will be more and more repression. We should be ready to face repression. The opposition has a major responsibility. They should try to form a united front and face this dictatorship together. This will be our effort, the effort of the Pakistan People's Party.
We shall try to bring other parties on a common platform so that we fight unitedly in the forthcoming elections. If we are united, the contest will be much more tough than in the previous elections. We shall then see how they face us! The whole nation is awake, from Khyber to Karachi and from Karachi to Chittagong. You can go to any part of Pakistan and you will find the people are disgusted. That is the state of affairs here, in the Punjab, Sind, in Bengal and in Baluchistan. The students are dissatisfied, the cultivators are dissatisfied. Now if the whole nation is with us, they may have their police and their guns, but we shall fight and the people will emerge victorious.